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Frequently asked questions about plan orders, blade design, electrical work and generator matching can be found on our Q&A pages.
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     Wind turbine technology has an identified limit for the efficiency in which kinetic energy can be converted into electricity, described mathematically as the 'Betz Limit' of ~59%. During the historical development from slow moving 'windmills' to modern wind turbines, more rigorous knowledge about aerodynamics was under development and allowed the late designs to incorporate airfoil sections, providing 'lift' force on the blade. The practical application for wind power generation was not obvious until the impact of fission and fossil fuel based technologies had become relevant.
     Turbine performance is calculated by comparing the power output from the operating generator, to the 'theoretical' power calculated using our 'Blade Calculator' software. The value for theoretical power  given by our software is the maximum power possible for all of the design dimensions. Blade efficiency is assumed to be 30% (0.30) for three accurately built blades.
                                           Software for the design or rationale of wind turbine specifications including size, speed and blade number, remains a focus of our research.

     Validation of the calculated output from our design software was established in the original 'Blade Calculator' for Windows 95 by using the experimental measurements obtained during the controlled testing of completed turbines. Updated versions have additional features with accessibility for a broad range of experience levels and conversion between metric and imperial systems.
                                                    Power output from the turbines electrical generator will change depending on the speed of rotation.

Large commercial turbines operate at a constant speed and power fed into the electrical grid is 'synchronous' with the AC phase that travels in the transmission cables. This is not the case with small domestic wind turbines and the excess power needs to be managed.
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     Modifying the blades shape and twist will change the ratio between the tip speed of the blade and incoming wind speed (TSR, tip speed ratio) with a lesser number of blades able to spin at a higher TSR.
Free Wind Turbine Blade Calculator Software and Plans
     The design of the generator determines the voltage and power produced, both of which increase with rotational speed in revolutions per minute (RPM). The generators specified RPM needs to closely match the turbines RPM at operating wind speeds to produce the power and voltage rated on the generators plate.
     The power that can be converted into electricity from wind energy is proportional to the circular 'swept' area that the blades cover as they rotate. An increase in turbine power requires a greater swept area to be covered, therefore the square of the blade radius is proportional to area and also power produced.  The average windspeed is adjusted to suit the location and can be useful to approximate the increases in blade radius required for low wind speed.
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       Articles in PDF format

Microwave Chemistry Reactor [PDF]
Design, simulation and construction of a
microwave reaction chamber.

Dielectric ‘Loss Factor’ (e’’)
Measurement for Common Organic
Solvents. [PDF]
Loss factor measurements for organic
solvents at frequencies 0.1 - 40.0 GHz.

Deconstruction of a 300 MHz
Cryomagnet for NMR Spectroscopy [PDF].
Background summary of selected projects
                                                Projects resulting from research into wind energy technology are documented and presented as site development continues.
Developing new processes to convert mechanical or thermal energy into electricity has eventuated in more sophisticated photovoltaic (solar) and emission capture technologies. The desire for 'non-destructive' energy conversion processes, such as utilising the decay from fission or capturing incident radiation from space, has long term social economic benefits and involves personal recognition of waste management from electricity production and use. The waste generated throughout the entire process of energy production is a concern for older and less effective technology that has approached the limit of efficiency in its design. For developing ideas, the waste generated during research can be difficult to predict.
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Wind Turbine Articles in PDF
BLADES:
1.4 Metre Diameter 3-Blade Wind Turbine Construction  [PDF]

10 kW (13 m/s), 5 Metre Diameter Carbon Fibre Blades for Wind Turbine  [PDF]
BLADES AND GENERATOR:
1.8 Metre Diameter Carbon Fibre Wind Turbine Blades and Generator  [PDF]
GENERATOR:
10 kW, 15 Phase Axial Flux Pancake Generator for 2-Blade Wind Turbine  [PDF]
     At a constant electrical resistance in your circuit, (generator windings and transmission lines), the power output produced from the wind turbine is generated with a change in voltage and current over the range of speeds.

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Research conducted by Warlock Engineering, whether it has been of past interest or ongoing in development, is documented on our web site as time permits. Improvements resulting from reflective development and community support are added progressively as interest grows. This allows us to provide better resources online. Some of our interests are detailed here on the site index along with new or popular web page content.
Wind Energy Technology:
Wind Energy Software:
     Any improvements to the design and construction technique are considered after blade efficiency is calculated using the data obtained during performance measurements.
     Adjusting the TSR in the appropriate range can more suitably match the blades to the generator. Two bladed turbines operate in a TSR range between 8 and 10, with 3 bladed turbines spinning at a TSR between 6 to 7. 
Electrical Circuit Design:
     Our original 'Bladecalc' software, written in visual basic 6 (VB6), remains hosted on this site and is available for download. Progressive improvements are incorporated into newer versions of the online 'Blade Calculator'. Accessibility options and other functions are added for cross-discipline users. We aim to eventually assist in all design aspects including hub and generator specifications.
     When the blade tip speed is at the correct ratio to the incoming wind speed (the correct TSR), airfoil lift is generated to boost efficiency in the power conversion process. Any rapid increases of voltage and current due to gusts are regulated using electronic circuitry to adjust a dumpload resistance in parallel with the system. This produces electricity suitable for domestic use. The excess energy is expended in a 'dumpload' resistor as heat.
     The 'lift' and 'drag' profiles for a large number of airfoil shapes have been experimentally measured and literature values are used in our calculations for power. Our software for the design of home built wind turbines has been developed and tested throughout the course each turbine project, validating the known airfoil data and giving rational efficiency values depending on the chord accuracy and smoothness.
1.4 Metre Diameter 3-Blade Wind Turbine Construction
1.4 Metre Diameter 3-Blade Wind Turbine Construction
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